Trauma is not the only psychology

This chapter is one of only two essays in the 'Unfinished business' book that had relatively well advanced references in the original essay, intended for publication. in a journal (but 'unfinished'). Here we can now itemise those references, with links wherever possible to the original sources.

It would be useful to look again at the paragraphs in the PIElink page on Working with Trauma (HERE) that advises valuing a more instinctive understanding of trauma, and extended empathy. These make the same point, in more direct terms.


ACEs, TIC and PIEs – references and further reading

Ainsworth, M. D. S., & Bowlby, J. (1991), An ethological approach to personality development. American Psychologist, 46, 331-341.

 Alcoholics Anonymous (n.d.)

Andrews, L (2017) Brain injury and homelessness :

Bennett M (n.d.) The trauma-informed lens (website) at:

Berne, E (1975) What do you say after you say hello? London: Corgi

Bowlby J (1955) Childcare and the growth of love  London: Penguin

Bowlby J (1983) Attachment and Loss, Vol I: Attachment. New York, Basic Books; available at:

Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books.

Boex S & Boex W (2012) “Well-being through design: transferability of design concepts for healthcare environments to ordinary community settings“. in Housing Care and Support, 15.2

Boland, L (2019) Visual methods and home-making, available at:

Boobis, S (2016) Evaluation of a Dialogical Psychologically Informed Environment (PIE) Pilot. Available at:

Boobis, S (2017) presentation at the HomelessLink/Mental Health Confederation conference

Bourdieu, P (1977)  Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge Univ Press

Bretherton, I (1992) The origins of attachment theory, in  Developmental Psychology, Vol 28, 759-775.

Butler A & Hodos, W (2005) Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy: Evolution and adaptation (2nd edition) Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons

Carroll R (2001) An interview with Allan Schore – ‘the American Bowlby’ at

Churchard A, Ryder M, Greenhill A, Mandy W (2018) The prevalence of autistic traits in a homeless population, Sage, Autism.

Clements W, Williams L, Wilson s, & David T (2019) Childhood trauma and Effective Empirically Based Interventions  Matter of Behaviour, Vol 10 No 11, Iss 1

Cockersell P (ed) (2018): Exclusion, Compound Trauma, and Recovery: Learning from the application of Psychology, Psychotherapy and PIE To Homelessness and Complex Needs London, Jessica Kingsley

Collaborate (2015) Behaving like a system? at:

Collaborate (2017): A whole new world; funding and commissioning for complexity. At:

Collaborate, (2019) Exploring the New World: Practical insights for funding, commissioning and managing in complexity. Available at:

Connolly A & Yaswinski J (2016) John Yaswinski & April Conolly & Robin Johnson discuss how gaps in mental health services evolved, and homelessness services then meet those needs; video interview, available at:

Cozolinho L (2006) The neuroscience of human relationships; attachment and the developing social brain, Psychotherapy in Australia, 12(2

Cristofori I, and Grafman, J (2017) Executive Functions after Traumatic Brain Injury: From Deficit to Recovery, in Executive Function in Health and Disease,

DCLG & NMHDU (2010) (Department of Communities and Local Government and the National Mental Health Development Unit): Non-statutory guidance on meeting the psychological and emotional needs of people who are homeless London, HMSO.

Department of Health (2011): “Recognising complexity: commissioning guidance for personality disorder services.” London, HMSO, Available at:

Döbrössy, M & Dunnett, S. (2008) “Environmental Housing and Duration of Exposure Affect Striatal Graft Morphology in a Rodent Model of Huntington's Disease”.  Cell Transplantation, Vol 17, Numbers 10-11

Doidge, Norman (2007) The Brain that changes itself: stories of personal triumph from the frontiers of brain science. ISBN 978-0-670-03830-5 (hc.) / ISBN 978-0-14-311310-2 (pbk.)

Drezner L (2017) ‘It’s all in the brain’ presentation at Homelesslink webinar:

Eastlund E (2017) ‘Rainbow services, TIC and PIEs’ (video presentation, at NAEH (National Alliance to End Homelessness) conference in Los Angeles (Feb 2017) Available at:

Fahmy E, Levitas R, Gordon D, & Patsios D (2009). Understanding the risks of social exclusion across the life course: Working age adults without dependent children U. Bristol/Cabinet Office, available at:

Folensbee, R (2007) The Neuroscience of Psychological Therapies, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Foucault M (1982) The Subject and Power. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226163123.

Haigh, R (2012) “Everybody's problem” , pp 23-42, in Johnson R & Haigh (R 2012 ) Complex Trauma and its effects; perspectives on creating an environment for recovery, Brighton: Pavilio

Hickey S and Roberts H (2011) ‘Tarnished gold: the sickness of evidence based medicine’ (for a review, see

HomelessLink (2015) Autism and homelessness; Briefing for frontline staff. HomelessLink website,

 Homelessink (2017) Brain injury and homelessness :

HomelessLink (2018) Psychologically informed environments, ten years on. Newsletter.

Homeless Link (2016)  Housing First in England: the principles available at:

Hopper E, Bassuk E and Olivet J (2010)  ‘Shelter from the storm: Trauma Informed Care in Homelessness Services Settings’, available at:

Hopper E, Bassuk E and Olivet J (2018)How Common Trauma Reactions May Explain Some ‘Difficult’ Behaviors or Reactions Within Homeless Service Settings’, extract available at:

Hughes K, Bellis M, Hardcastle K, Sethi D, Butchart A, Mikton C, Jones L, Dunne P: (2017) The effect of multiple adverse childhood experiences on health: a systematic review and meta-analysis
 Lancet Public Health 2:e356-66 (open access)

Jarret, C (2018) article review (BPS digest)

Johnson R (1981) In search of the enabling environment: A comparative study of therapeutic community models and structures, identifying some underlying modalities or dimensions of interaction.. (M. Social Admin dissertation), available at:

Johnson R  (2014a) ‘Do complex needs need complex needs services?  Part One” J Housing Care and Support.

Johnson R  (2014b) ‘Do complex needs need complex needs services?  Part Two” J Housing Care and Support.

 Johnson R (2017a) Principles and Practice in Psychology and Homelessness, in Levy J & Johnson R, Editors, Cross-cultural Dialogues on Homelessness: From Pretreatment Strategies to Psychologically Informed Environments.

Johnson, R (2017b) They do things differently there, in Levy J & Johnson R, Editors, Cross-cultural Dialogues on Homelessness: From Pretreatment Strategies to Psychologically Informed Environments.  Loving Healing Press, Ann Arbor.

Johnson R (forthcoming) Attachment, stress and the ethologically informed environment:  biology, psychology and neuroscience in homelessness work  pre-publication draft for comments currently available at:

Johnson R & Haigh, R (2010) Social Psychiatry and Social Policy for the 21st Century - psychologically informed environments  in J. Mental Health & Social Inclusion, 2010

Johnstone, Boyle et al (2018): The Power Threat Meaning Framework: a summary

Karpman (1968) Fairy tales and script drama analysis, Transactional Analysis, 7: 26

King, S, (2012) The Drama Triangle and other ‘unwanted repetitive patterns’, in Johnson R and Haigh R, editors, Complex Trauma and its Effects; perspectives on creating an environment for recovery, Pavilion.

Laban D (2016) Take a chance on me: Dick Laban on relationship building for those in the pre-contemplative stages of change; at

Lankelly Chase (2015), Hard Edges: Mapping severe and multiple disadvantage, website:

LeDoux, J. E. (2012). Evolution of human emotion: a view through fear. Prog. Brain Res. 195, 431–442. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-53860-4.00021-0

Lende D & Downey G (n.d.) Neuroanthropology and social inequality

Lewis G & Appleby L (1988) Personality Disorder; the patients psychiatrists dislike. in The British Journal of Psychiatry (1988) 153: 44-49

Levy J (2013) Pre-treatment guide for homeless outreach and Housing First, Loving Healing Press, Ann Arbor

Levy, J (2016) Attachment, witness and the work of REACH in Housing First – video.

Linked In (2018) discussion available at ????

Macintyre, Ferris, Goncalves & Quinn (2018): What's economics got to do with it? 

Malone D, Collins S, Clifaseti S (2015) Single-site housing first for chronically homeless people in Housing, Care and Support, 18(2)

Midlands Psychology Group (2007) Questioning the science and politics of happiness, in The Psychologist, Vol 20 Pt 7, July 2007

Middleton R (2017) Ladder4Life; developing Dialogical PIE , in Levy J & Johnson R, Editors, Cross-cultural Dialogues on Homelessness: From Pretreatment Strategies to Psychologically Informed Environments.  Loving Healing Press, Ann Arbor.

Middleton, R, (2019) un-published PhD thesis. obtainable on request.

Nanni V, Uher D & Danese A (2011) ‘Childhood Maltreatment Predicts Unfavourable Course Of Illness And Treatment Outcome In Depression: A Meta-Analysis’ American Journal of Psychiatry AiA:1-10 10.1176

National Lottery (n.d.) Fulfilling Lives: Supporting people with multiple and complex needs    Big Lottery website, last accessed 12/6/2019;  available at:  Fulfilling Lives: Supporting People with Complex Needs | The National Lottery Community Fund

O’Connell M, Rosenheck R, Kasprow W, Frisman L. An examination of fulfilled housing preferences and quality of life among homeless persons with mental illness and/or substance use disorders. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research. 2006;33(3):354–365.

Pable, J (2015) A checklist of trauma-informed care principles in built environment design, Design Resources for Homelessness website.

Pable, J (2019) Homelessness: Supporting Dignity Through Design TEDxFSU, available at

Parramore L (2018) Meet the economist behind the One per cent’s takeover of America, Institute for New Economic Thinking,

Patton P (2008) One world, many minds; intelligence in the animal kingdom Scientific American Mind, Dec 2008/Jan 2009

PIElink [a] (n.d.) PIElink website: ‘Psychological awareness’ in a PIE, at   Also:

PIElink [b] (n.d.) PIElink website:  ‘Training and support’, at:

PIElink [c] (n.d.) PIElink website:  page on the role of reflective practice e – interview with Renzo

PIElink [d] (n.d.) PIElink website:  ‘Learning and enquiry’, at:

PIElink [e] (n.d.) PIElink website: ‘Spaces of opportunity’, at:

PIElink [f] (n.d.) PIElink website:  ‘The three Rs’ – rules:

PIElink [g] (n.d.) PIElink website:  ‘The three Rs’ – roles:

PIElink [h] (n.d.) website: ‘The Pizazz Handbook’, at:

PIElink [i] (n.d.) website: ‘The ethics and politics of PIE’, at:

Public Health Scotland (n.d.) website :

Rosengard A, Laing I, Ridley J, & Hunter S (2007) A literature review on multiple and complex needs  Scottish Executive Social Research, Edinburgh

SAMHSA (n.d.) website:

Simon P (1975) Fifty ways to leave your lover from “Still crazy after all these years”;

Spurling L (2019) minutes of meeting and personal correspondence.

Woodcock J & Gill J (2013) “Implementing a Psychologically Informed Environment in a service for homeless young people” ,in Housing Care and Support journal Issue 17.1.  available at

Whitfield G & Williams C (2003) The evidence base for cognitive-behavioural therapy in depression: delivery in busy clinical settings in Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 9: 1, pp 21-30

Wilkinson R (2017) Inequality and Exclusion, presentation at the Faculty of Homelessness and Healthcare conference, 2017 at:

Wilkinson R (2005) The impact of inequality Routledge, Abingdon

Williamson (2018): The dependency paradox, in Cockersell, ed.  “Social Exclusion, Compound Trauma and Recovery

Yaswinski & Connolly (2016) How gaps in mental health services evolved, and homelessness services then meet those needs: video available at

Chapters and content links

Psychologically Informed Environments from the ground up: Service design for complex needs : HERE

All other PIE publications : HERE

Chapters and content links

  • Foreword
  • Introduction : Full text coming soon.
  • Three Models of the Origins of Homelessness : HERE
  • Trauma is not the only psychology : HERE
  • The Window of Tolerance, the Drama Triangle, and the Adjacent Possible : HERE
  • Attachment, trauma and the social environment: COMING SOON
  • Strengths, ambivalence and paradox: : HERE
  • Pre-treatment : PIEs in the micro-social world :  HERE
  • Living in Temporary Accommodation : HERE
  • Unfinished business: COMING SOON
  • Afterthoughts : Full text coming soon.
  • About the author : COMING SOON

To purchase via Blackwell's : HERE



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