Keyword Groups: Other Practice Issues


Asset Based Community Development: a strengths-based approach that applies to communities in both senses of the word – the community at large’, and also the smaller, more ‘intentional’ communities that individuals may join or enter, for a particular purpose

life journey

An account of an individual’s life history (or part of it). See also ‘personal reflection’, ‘narrative’, ‘idiographic account’.

cycle of change

The cycle of change is a useful concept that helps us to understand why and how individuals may be slow to make the personal changes they may need, and may or may not even be aware they need, to make. Although the cycle of changes does chart stages in what will be a progress,for many, […]

employment opportunities

use this, rather than ’employment training and support’, of a service that actually creates and provides work or onsite training opportunities, as against supporting work and training elsewhere – though of course many services will do both. (See also ‘social therapy”, for activities undertaken within a service intended primarily for psychological rather than financial gain.)


Not all flexibility necessarily is devoted to being more ‘needs-led’; but they tend to go together; without flexibility, being ‘needs-led’ is compromised. Therefore here we do link the two, rather than offering them as separate categories.


The term ‘innovation’ is normally applied to services, whereas ‘creativity’ is applied to individuals (and especially to ‘artistic’ work and self expression). The idea that there are ‘creative industries, and all the rest are simply dull and worthy, is simply wrong.

practice examples

We avoid here the term ‘good’ or ‘best’ practice, which suggests (wrongly) that services should follow some other services’ example, rather than coming up with their own answers. But here we record examples of practice that have been nominated by others as good examples, to learn from rather than to emulate (See also: case study, […]

systemic failure

The argument that ‘complex needs’ reflect a welfare services system that has become too rigid,  and that it is this rigidity, just as much as the complexity of individuals’ needs, that accounts for the marginalisation, disadvantage and exclusion of individuals with complex needs.